What is Non-Communicable Disease?
The disease that is not communicable (NCD) is not directly communicable to one person. NCDs include Parkinson’s disease, autoimmune diseases , stroke, most cardiovascular diseases, most cancer , diabetes, osteoarthritis, arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease.
Cronic or acute NCDs could be. The majority of these diseases are not infectious, although certain infectious diseases are not transmitted, like parasite diseases, in which direct host-to – host transmission is not included in the parasite life cycle.
NCDs are the world’s largest cause of death. Sixty-eight percent (38 million) of all deaths in 2012 rose from 60% in 2000. Approximately half were under 70 years of age and half were women.
The probability of certain NCDs is increased by risk factors, such as the background, lifestyle and environment of an individual.
At least 5 million people die every year because of tobacco consumption, and approximately 2.8 million die from overweight.
Approximately 2,6 million people are killed with high cholesterol and 7,5 million die from high blood pressure.
Risk Factors Of Non-Communicable Diseases
Risk factors such as the background of a person are known to increase the risk of certain non-communicable diseases. lifestyle and the environment.
They include age , gender, genetics, air pollution exposure, and behavior such as smoking, a poor health diet and physical inactivity, which may lead to hypertension or obesity.
Most NCDs are considered preventable due to changing risk factors. Five important non-communicable disease risk factors in the World Health Report 2002 identified five of the top ten health risks.
These include increased blood pressure , increased cholesterol, the use of tobacco , alcohol and overweight.
The economic and social conditions of an individual, also known as » [social determinants of health] », other factors associated to a higher risk of NCDs include.
It was estimated that 80% of cardiovascular, stroke and type 2 diabetes and 40% of cancer cases could be prevented if the primary risk factors were eliminated.
Interventions aimed to reduce the burden of diseases around the world could have a significant impact.
The prevalence of NCDs has been controlled through efforts focused on improved diet and increased physical activity.
Some Diseases That Are Non Communicable
i) Cancer ii) Cardiovascular disease iii) Diabetes iv) Chronic kidney disease v) Chronic respiratory disease
Socio-economic Impacts Of Non Communicable Diseases
NCDs threaten progress to 2030, which includes a target of a 1/3 reduction in premature death from NCDs by 2030.
Poverty has an intimate connection with NCDs. The rapid increase in NCDs in low-income countries is expected to impede poverty alleviation initiatives, in particular by increasing household costs in relation to health.
Sicker and sicker people are vulnerable and socially disadvantaged than persons of higher social status, particularly because they are in greater risk of exposure to hazardous products like tobacco or unhealthy diet and because of a limited number of health services.
Health care costs for NCDs are quickly draining household resources in low-resource settings. NCDs’ exorbitant costs, often prolonged and costly therapy and loss of breadwinning, lead to the poverty of millions of people every year and stifle growth.
Preventive Measures Of Non-Communicable Diseases
An important way of controlling NCDs is to concentrate on reducing risk factors for these disorders.
There are low cost solutions that reduce the jointly modifiable risk factors for governments and other stakeholders.
To guide politics and priorities, it is important to monitor NCDs’ progress and trends and their risk.
In order to reduce the impact of the NMRs on individuals and society, it is necessary to work together to reduce the risks associated with NMRs and to promote intervenations for the prevention and control of them in all areas, including health , finance, transport , education, agriculture, planning, etc.
It is critical to invest in improved NCD management. NCD management consists of the identification, detection and treatment of such diseases and the provision of access for the needy to palliative care.
A primary health care approach to strengthen early detection and timely treatment can deliver a high level of impact on essential NCD interventions.
Evidence shows that such interventions are good economic investments since they may reduce the need for more expensive treatment if they are provided early to patients.
Unable to provide universal access to essential NCD interventions in states with insufficient coverage for health insurance.
Management of NCDs are essential to achieve the global objective of reducing premature mortality risk by 25 percent for NCDs by 2025 and the goal for SDG to cut premature NCDs by a one-third by 2030.