What is Listeriosis?
Listeriosis is the most common bacterial infection, though L. Listeriosis is caused by Listeriogenes. L. and ivanovii. In some cases, grayi were reported.
Listeriasis can lead to serious illnesses, such as severe sepsis, meningitis, or encephalitis, which can sometimes cause lifetime damage and even death.
Seniors, fetuses, newborns and immunocompromised people are at risk of severe sickness.
It may cause death or spontaneous abortion in pregnant women, and it is common for preterm birth.
Listeriosis in anybody can cause mild , self-limiting gastroenteritis and fever.
Listeria is omniprésent and is mostly transmitted through the oral route following ingestion of contaminated food products that cause systemic infections through bacteria penetrate the intestinal tract.
Listeriosis diagnosis requires the blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid isolation of causative bacteria.
Treatment includes prolonged antibiotic treatment , especially ampicillin and gentamicin that are generally susceptible to the organism.
Symptoms Of Listeriosis
The symptoms of listeriosis are given below:
i) High-risk people other than pregnant women: fever, muscle aches , headache, tight neck, confusion, balance loss, and convulsions may be part of symptoms.
ii) Pregnant women: In most cases, pregnant women have only a mild, flu-like disease. However, pregnancy infections can lead to a newborn’s miscarriage, dead birth, premature delivery or life-threatening.
iii) Formerly healthy: People who have previously been healthy but have been exposed to an extremely large dose of Listeria can have a non-invasive disease (i.e. bacteria have not spread into their bloodstream or other body sites). Diarrhea and fever may be part of the symptoms.
Causes Of Listeriosis
In the environment, listeria monocytogenes are omnipresent. Listeria is mainly acquired by consuming contaminated food products.
Cut meat, milk, vegetables , fruit and seafood has been isolated from Listeria.
Soft cheeses, unpasteurized milk and unpasteurized pâté are potential hazards, but certain post-pasteurized milk outbreaks were reported.
Listeriosis can rarely occur as listeriosis of the skin. This infection happens when L is directly exposed.
Intact skin monocytogenes and is confined largely for veterinarians, mostly following a listerial abortion, who treat diseased animals.
Patients with hemochromatosis may be more prevalent.
Preventive Measures Of Listeriosis
The main means of preventive measures are by promoting safe treatment, cooking and food consumption.
This includes thoroughly washing raw vegetables and cooking raw foods, and restoring or ready to eat foods such as hot dogs until they are hot.
Another element in prevention involves advising high risk groups such as pregnant women and immunocompromised patients to prevent pâtés and soft cheeses such as feta, brie, camembert and blue.
Cream cheeses, yogurt and cheese cottage are regarded as safe. In the United Kingdom, the advice of the Chief Medical Officer on this issue in maternity clinics in the late 1980s led to a sharp drop in cases of pregnancy listeriosis.
Treatment Of Listeriosis
Bacteremia, 3 weeks meningitis, and brain abscess for at least 6 weeks should be treated for 2 weeks.
In general, Ampicillin is considered to be a preference antibiotic; gentamicin is often added for its synergistic effects.
In all cases of pregnancy, 22% led to either fetal loss or neonatal mortality, but mothers usually survive. The overall mortality rate is between 20–30%.